Character / āśraya

Component of rasadhvani

āśraya - that to which anything is annexed or with which anything is closely connected or on which anything depends or rests, a recipient, the person or thing in which any quality or article is inherent or retained or received (158) [1].

"In technical terms the problem that confronts us here is one of finding the āśraya of the stable emotion, i.e., its locus or substrate, the character in whom the sthāyibhāva resides and through whose reactions and accompanying experiences the stable emotion is made known. The question of the presence of the āśraya of the stable emotion, like the question of whether śāntarasa is possible, takes a somewhat different form when one turns from the world of drama for which the theory of rasa was originally worked out, to the sphere of non-dramatic poetry" (188) [2]

(Tubb’s translation of the Abhinavabhāratī)
[D]rama is a meaning to be unwaveringly determined [by the spectators] with one-pointed minds, being made present through the power of the acting of the actor, and that is to be suggested through one of the particular types of poetic composition such as the nāṭaka [a genre of plays]. And although it consists of an infinite number of vibhāvas and so on, nevertheless, since all insentient things find their culmination in consciousness, and it in a sentient subject, and all such subjects in a predominant subject, that [meaning that constitutes drama] is (in the end) a particular stable psychological state belonging to a particular subject, who is called the protagonist.

Book of Mormon

City of Mulek (Alma 52:28-38)
And now behold, when the Chief Captains of the Lamanites had beheld Lehi, with his army, coming against them, they fled in much confusion, lest perhaps they should not obtain the city Mulek, before Lehi should overtake them; for they were wearied because of their march; and the men of Lehi were fresh. Now the Lamanites did not know that Moroni had been in their rear with his army; and all they feared, was Lehi and his men.

Now Lehi was not desirous to overtake them, till they should meet Moroni and his army.

And it came to pass that before the Lamanites had retreated far, they were surrounded by the Nephites; by the men of Moroni on one hand, and the men of Lehi on the other, all of whom were fresh and full of strength; but the Lamanites were wearied, because of their long march. And Moroni commanded his men that they should fall upon them, until they had given up their weapons of war.

And it came to pass that Jacob, being their leader, being also a Zoramite, and having an unconquerable spirit, he led the Lamanites forth to battle, with exceeding fury against Moroni. Moroni being in their course of march, therefore Jacob was determined to slay them, and cut his way through to the city of Mulek. But behold, Moroni and his men were more powerful; therefore they did not give way before the Lamanites.

And it came to pass that they fought on both hands with exceeding fury; and there were many slain on both sides; yea, and Moroni was wounded, and Jacob was killed.

And Lehi pressed upon their rear with such fury, with his strong men, that the Lamanites in the rear delivered up their weapons of war; and the remainder of them, being much confused, knew not whether to go or to strike.

Now Moroni seeing their confusion, he said unto them, If ye will bring forth your weapons of war, and deliver them up, behold we will forbear shedding your blood.

And it came to pass that when the Lamanites had heard these words, their Chief Captains, all those which were not slain, came forth and threw down their weapons of war at the feet of Moroni, and also commanded their men that they should do the same…

1. Monier-Williams, Monier. 1899. A Sanskrit-English Dictionary: Etymologically and Philologically Arranged. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
2. Tubb, Gary A. 1991. “Śāntarasa in the Mahābhārata”, In: Arvind Sharma (Ed.). Essays on the Mahābhārata. Leiden: Brill.
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