Fortitude / utsāha

One of the Emotional Modes


utsāha - power, strength; strength of will, resolution; effort, perseverance, strenuous and continuous exertion, energy; firmness, fortitude (182) [1].

Now the Heroic (vīra) Sentiment, relates to the superior type of persons and has energy as its basis. This is created by Determinants such as presence of mind, perseverance, diplomacy, discipline, military strength, agressiveness (sic), reputation of might, influence and the like (114) [2].

It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as firmness, patience, heroism, charity, diplomacy and the like (114) [2].

Transitory States in it are contentment, judgement, pride, agitation, energy (vega1), ferocity, indignation, remembrance, horripilation and the like (114) [2].

The Heroic Sentiment arises from energy, perseverance, optimism, absence of surprise, and presence of mind and [such other] special conditions [of the spirit] (114) [2].

This Heroic Sentiment is to be properly represented on the stage by firmness, patience, heroism, pride, energy, agressiveness, influence and censuring words (114) [2].

Book of Mormon

River Sidon (Alma 43:43-51)

Now in this case, the Lamanites did fight exceedingly;

yea, never had the Lamanites been known to have fought with such exceeding great strength and courage; no, not even from the beginning;

and they were inspired by the Zoramites, and the Amalekites, which were their Chief Captains and leaders, and by Zerahemnah, who was their Chief Captain, or their chief leader and commander;

yea, they did fight like dragons;

and many of the Nephites were slain by their hands;

yea, for they did smite in two many of their head-plates; and they did pierce many of their breast-plates; and they did smite off many of their arms; and thus the Lamanites did smite in their fierce anger.

Nevertheless, the Nephites were inspired by a better cause;

for they were not fighting for monarchy nor power; but they were fighting for their homes, and their liberties, their wives, and their children, and their all; yea, for their rites of worship, and their church; and they were doing that which they felt it was the duty which they owed to their God;

for the Lord had said unto them, and also unto their fathers, That inasmuch as ye are not guilty of the first offence, neither the second, ye shall not suffer yourselves to be slain by the hands of your enemies. And again: The Lord hath said That ye shall defend your families, even unto bloodshed;

therefore, for this cause were the Nephites contending with the Lamanites, to defend themselves, and their families, and their lands, their country, and their rights, and their religion.

And it came to pass that when the men of Moroni saw the fierceness and the anger of the Lamanites,

they were about to shrink and flee from them.

And Moroni, perceiving their intent, sent forth and inspired their hearts with these thoughts;

yea, the thoughts of their lands, their liberty, yea, their freedom from bondage.

And it came to pass that they turned upon the Lamanites, and they cried with one voice unto the Lord their God, for their liberty, and their freedom from bondage.

And they began to stand against the Lamanites with power;

and in that self-same hour that they cried unto the Lord for their freedom, the Lamanites began to flee before them;

and they fled even to the waters of Sidon. Now the Lamanites were more numerous; yea, by more than double the number of the Nephites;

nevertheless, they were driven insomuch that they were gathered together in one body, in the valley, upon the bank, by the river Sidon;

1. Monier-Williams, Monier. 1899. A Sanskrit-English Dictionary: Etymologically and Philologically Arranged. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
2. Ghosh, Manomohan. 1951. The Nātyaśāstra, ascribed to Bharata-Muni, Vol. I. Asiatic Society of Bengal: Calcutta.
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