Sorrow / śoka

One of the Emotional Modes.

Definition

śoka - sorrow, affliction, anguish, pain, trouble, grief (1091) [1].

"Grief [śoka] characterizes not only karuṇarasa (the flavor of compassion or tragedy), but also that variety of the erotic flavor that is based on the separation of lovers (vipralambhaśṛṅgāra). Between the two sorts of grief is this difference: the grief of tragedy, as in the present instance, expects no relief; the grief of separated lovers looks forward to reunion (118, 1.5L n1) [2].

"The Pathetic Sentiment relates to a condition of despair owing to the affliction under a curse, separation from dear ones, loss of wealth, death or captivity, while the Erotic Sentiment based on separation relates to a condition of retaining optimism arising out of yearning and anxiety. Hence the Pathetic Sentiment, and the Erotic Sentiment in separation differ from each other (109) [3].

"Now the Pathetic (karuṇa) Sentiment arises from the Dominant State of sorrow" (112) [3].

"It grows from Determinants such as affliction under a curse, separation from dear ones, loss of wealth, death, captivity, flight [from one's own place], [dangerous] accidents or any other misfortune" (112) [3].

"This is to be represented on the stage by means of Consequents such as, shedding tears, lamentation, dryness of the mouth, change of colour, drooping limbs, being out of breath, loss of memory and the like" (112) [3].

"Transitory States connected with it are indifference, langour, anxiety, yearning, excitement, delusion, faintiug, sadness, dejection, illness, inactivity, insanity, epilepsy, fear, indolence, death, paralysis, tremor, change of colour, weeping, loss of voice and the like" (112) [3].

"Now the Pathetic (karuṇa) Sentiment arises from the Dominant State of sorrow. It grows from Determinants such as affliction under a curse, separation from dear ones, loss of wealth, death, captivity, flight [from one's own place], [dangerous] accidents or any other misfortune" (112) [3].

"Transitory States connected with it are indifference, langour, anxiety, yearning, excitement, delusion, fainting, sadness, dejection, illness, inactivity, insanity, epilepsy, fear, indolence, death, paralysis, tremor, change of colour, weeping, loss of voice and the like" (112) [3].

"Sorrow (śoka) is caused by Determinants such as death of the beloved one, loss of wealth, experience of sorrow due to any one's murder or captivity, and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as shedding tears, lamentation, bewailing, change of colour, loss of voice, looseness of limbs, falling on the ground, crying, deep breathing, paralysis, insanity, death and the like" (122) [3].

Book of Mormon

Does not look forward to reunion (karuṇa)

Sorrow over missed repentance (3 Nephi 8:14-25)

[A]nd many great and notable cities were sunk, and many were burned, and many were shook till the buildings thereof had fallen to the earth, and the inhabitants thereof were slain, and the places were left desolate; and there were some cities which remained; but the damage thereof was exceeding great, and there were many in them which were slain; and there were some which were carried away in the whirlwind; and whither they went, no man knoweth, save they know that they were carried away; and thus the face of the whole earth became deformed, because of the tempests, and the thunderings, and the lightnings, and the quaking of the earth. And behold, the rocks were rent in twain; yea, they were broken up upon the face of the whole earth, insomuch that they were found in broken fragments, and in seams, and in cracks, upon all the face of the land.

And it came to pass that when the thunderings, and the lightnings, and the storm, and the tempest, and the quakings of the earth did cease—for behold, they did last for about the space of three hours; and it was said by some that the time was greater; nevertheless, all these great and terrible things were done in about the space of three hours; and then behold, there was darkness upon the face of the land.

And it came to pass that there was thick darkness upon the face of all the land, insomuch that the inhabitants thereof which had not fallen, could feel the vapour of darkness; and there could be no light, because of the darkness, neither candles, neither torches; neither could there be fire kindled with their fine and exceeding dry wood, so that there could not be any light at all; and there was not any light seen, neither fire, nor glimmer, neither the sun, nor the moon, nor the stars, for so great were the mists of darkness which were upon the face of the land. And it came to pass that it did last for the space of three days, that there was no light seen;

and there was great mourning, and howling, and weeping among all the people continually; yea, great were the groanings of the people,

because of the darkness and the great destruction which had come upon them.

And in one place they were heard to cry, saying:

O that we had repented before this great and terrible day, and then would our brethren have been spared, and they would not have been burned in that great city Zarahemla.

And in another place they were heard to cry and mourn, saying:
O that we had repented before this great and terrible day, and had not killed and stoned the prophets, and cast them out; then would our mothers, and our fair daughters, and our children have been spared, and not have been buried up in that great city Moronihah;

and thus were the howlings of the people great and terrible.

Looks forward to reunion (vipralambha śṛṅgāra)

vipralambha - "separation of lovers, disunion , disjunction" (976)[1].

Mormon’s sorrow over the slain (Mormon 6:18-22)

Behold, if ye had not done this, ye would not have fallen. But behold, ye are fallen, and I mourn your loss. O ye fair sons and daughters, ye fathers and mothers, ye husbands and wives, ye fair ones, how is it that ye could have fallen! But behold, ye are gone, and my sorrows cannot bring your return; and the day soon cometh that your mortal must put on immortality, and these bodies which are now mouldering in corruption, must soon become incorruptible bodies; and then ye must stand before the judgement seat of Christ, to be judged according to your works: and if it so be that ye are righteous, then are ye blessed with your fathers which have gone before you. O that ye had repented before that this great destruction had come upon you. But behold, ye are gone, and the Father, yea, the eternal Father of heaven, knoweth your state; and he doeth with you according to his justice and mercy.


Bibliography
1. Monier-Williams, Monier. 1899. A Sanskrit-English Dictionary: Etymologically and Philologically Arranged. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
2. Ānandavardhana and Abhinavagupta. 1990. The Dhvanyāloka of Ānandavardhana; with the Locana of Abhinavagupta. Trans. Daniel H.H. Ingalls, Jeffrey M. Masson, M.V. Patwardhan. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
3. Ghosh, Manomohan. 1951. The Nātyaśāstra, ascribed to Bharata-Muni, Vol. I. Asiatic Society of Bengal: Calcutta.
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